The historians have narrated that: When the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) presented his religion to the Arab tribes, some of them said,” If we agree with you on what you say and pay allegiance to you, and if God offers you victory over your opponents, would the leadership of the nation be offered to us after you?”(1)

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) responded,” This matter is in the hands of Allah (SWT), and He shall offer it to whomever He wills”.

And Allah (SWT) did not leave the Islamic nation after the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) as He chose Amir al-Mu’minin, Imam Ali (PBUH), as his successor. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) revealed this reality, based on the order of Allah (SWT), on every occasion and situation, among every group and gathering, and at every battle. He delivered this Divine message to the people with various statements and wordings… (2)

Nevertheless, the incident of Ghadir has a special status.

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) gathered and explained at once all what he had said about Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH) since the beginning of his mission.

Moreover, the incident of Ghadir had specific characteristics in which, the previous announcements did not have:

1-    The explicitness of the statement of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) and the clarity of his purpose: He did not suffice to speech on the day of Ghadir, rather he showed his purpose in action as well. As he was delivering his sermon, he raised the hand of Imam Ali (PBUH) who was standing to his right, and he actually showed the person he meant by doing so.

2-    The nearness of Ghadir to the demise of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP): In his sermon, the Messenger of Allah(PBUH&HP) said, ”I shall be invited to my Lord soon, and I will accept this invitation…” (3) It is clear that such a statement in such a situation left a deep effect on the crowd; it completed the argument on all of them and left no room for any excuse or pretext.

3-    The occurrence of Ghadir in the presence of an incredible crowd of Muslims: The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) had announced long before that this was his last Hajj. Therefore, a large group of Muslims went to Medina in order to accompany him in Hajj. Moreover, many people joined him during the rituals of Hajj to benefit from his company.

The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) completed the rituals of Hajj with this huge crowd of Muslims and left Mecca then. When they reached the location of Ghadir which was the separation point of the people of Medina from the Egyptians and the Iraqis, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) stopped and waited for those in behind to reach him. He also ordered those who had gone forward to return to the spot. After praying, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) completed stood up and delivered an important sermon, and conveyed his message to the entire crowd.

4-    The decent of the words of Allah (SWT) (the Holy Quran) on Ghadir: Before delivering of the sermon by the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP), the following verse was decent:

“O Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people…” (4)(5)

After he delivered the sermon, the following verse was decent:

“This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion” (6) (7).

5-    The crowd congratulating Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH): Among the first people who did this were Umar and Abu Bakr; they congratulated Imam Ali (PBUH) while saying, ”Good for you O son of Abu Talib! You have become our guardian and the guardian of every believer man and woman” (8).

Based on these and other unique characteristics, Ghadir has a special position in terms of the introduction and announcement of succession of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH).

Therefore, Ghadir was the last spot for announcement of the Imamate of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH); the difference between this incident and the previous ones was that this time the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) did not mention it implicitly; rather he mentioned his point very explicitly and clearly. Indeed what he said was very complete in regards with his purpose, and if it was not so, the verse of “Completion of Religion” would not have been decent by Allah (SWT)…

 (The above is a selection taken from “Ghadir, the Final Public Announcement”, by Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Milani)

The Roshd Website congratulates all Muslims, especially you dear friend upon the anniversary of the completion of religion and the announcement of succession of Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH), the great Eid of Allah (SWT), the auspicious Eid Ghadir Khum.

Footnotes:

1. Sirah Ibn Hisham, vol. 1, p.425 – Tarihk al-Tabari, vol. 2, p. 350 – Sirah al-Halabiyeh, vol. 2, p. 154

2. For instance, when the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) warned his relatives and asked for their support, he said:” O sons of Abdul Muttalib! I have been appointed for you specifically and for the rest of people generally. So which one of you would pay allegiance to me so that he would become my successor?” In fact, the only person who responded was Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH). This Hadith which is known as “Hadith al-Dar (house)” has been narrated by several narrators, historians, and authors such including: Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Musnad, vol. 1, p. 111- Nisa’i in Khasais, p. 18- Tabari in his history, vol. 2, p. 216…

In addition, the Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HP) said to Amir al-Mu’minin (PBUH),” The position of you to me is like the position of Aaron to Moses, except that there will be no Messenger after me”. This Hadith which is known as “Hadith Manzilat (position)” has been narrated by several Sunni scholars such as Bukhari, Muslim Neyshaburi, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Abu Dawwod Tayalisi, Ibn Sa’ad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Habban, Tirmizi, Tabari, etc. The author has examined this Hadith in his book “Nafahat al-Azhar fi Khulasa Abaghat al-Anwar”

3. Mustadrak Sahihain, vol. 3, p. 533- Khasais Nisa’i, p. 28 (with some difference in wording)- Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 1, p. 187, Hadith 953…

 4. The Holy Quran (5, 67)

 5. For example, among the Sunni scholars and interpreters, we can refer to: Muhammad ibn Jarir Tabari in Al-Wilayah, Abul Hassan Wahid Neyshaburi in Asbab al-Nuzul, Hakim Hasakani in Shawahid al-Tanzil, etc. Among the Shia scholars we can name great characters such as Shaykh Tusi in Tibyan, Shaykh Tabarsi in Majma’ al-Bayan, Allamah Tabatabai in Al-Mizan, etc who have mentioned the incident of Ghadir in regards with this verse 67 of Chapter 5 of the Holy Quran.

 6. The Holy Quran (5, 3)

 7. Among the Shia scholars we can name great characters such as Shaykh Tusi in Tibyan, Shaykh Tabarsi in Majma’ al-Bayan, Allamah Tabatabai in Al-Mizan, etc and among the Sunni scholars, we can refer to: Muhammad ibn Jarir Tabari in Al-Wilayah, Hakim Hasakani in Shawahid al-Tanzil, Khatib Baghdadi in his history (vol. 8, p. 290), Hamwaini in Fara’id al-Simtayn, etc. who have related verse 3 of Chapter 5 of the Holy Quran to the incident of Ghadir.

 8. Musnad Ahmad vol. 4, p. 281- Tarikh Islam Zahabi, Chapter of the Caliphs, p. 633- Ibn Athir in Nihayah, vol. 5, p. 228- Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 8, p. 290- Al-Bidayah wa al-Nihayah, vol. 7, p. 386- Khatib Kharazmi in Manaqib, p. 94- Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 13, p. 134.